English Grammar Step by Step

     UNIT 17

   Fill in the blanks as appropriate, using
   the word or words in brackets.

1  Examples:
   He’s strong enough to lift that drum.
   You don’t come often enough.
   There aren’t enough packets of biscuits.

   Enough is placed after adjectives and adverbs,
   but before nouns. In modern English, it is not
   very usual to put enough after nouns. It can
   also appear alone: That’s enough! It can take
   of if it is followed by a pronoun or
   a determiner + a noun:
     I have enough of this.
     We don’t have enough of these penknives.
   It means ‘sufficient’.

a  You haven’t bought __________ (blueberries).
b  This soil is not __________ (rich) to plant vegetables.
c  We don’t have __________ (blood donors).
d  This garage is not __________ (large).
e  I’m not __________ (well) to go on working.

2  Examples:
   He’s too ill to move/to be moved.
   He works too quickly.
   They have too many milk bottles.
   They have too much beer.

   We put too before adjectives or adverbs; too many, before
   plural nouns; too much, before uncountable nouns. We can
   omit the noun if there is no need to mention it again:
     They have two many (milk bottles).
     They have too much (beer).
   Too many and too much require the preposition of if they are
   followed by a pronoun or a determiner + a noun: Too many of us have
   betrayed our master. All of these forms mean ‘more than enough’.

a  __________ (cooks) spoil the broth.
b  You’re __________ (cruel) to people. You should be kinder, more
   polite and not so sarcastic.
c  There is __________ (violence) on the streets nowadays.
d  He’s __________ (stingy) to give you that!
e  I don’t want to pay him a visit today; he lives __________ (far)
   away from here!

3  Examples:
   This dress is pretty enough for her to wear at the wedding.
   It’s too wonderful to be true.

   Notice that we can place a for-phrase and/or an infinitive with to
   after enough and too.

a  This zip is __________ (big) __________ those trousers. You need a
   smaller one.
b  She’s only 15. Don’t you think she’s __________ (young) __________ marry?
c  This car’s __________ (good) __________ him __________ drive in the
   race. In fact, it’s one of the best cars on the market.
d  He’s __________ (liberal) __________ us. We need a more conservative
e  This poison is __________ (strong) __________ kill a bull.

4  Revision exercise.
a  I think I have drunk __________ for tonight. If I drank more,
   I wouldn’t be able to drive later on.
b  She’s eighteen, so she’s __________ (old) __________ order a beer.
c  The generation gap between us is __________ (strong) __________
   break/__________ be broken. We’re like chalk and cheese.
d  You smoke __________. You should smoke less.
e  We can’t eat all this butter in a week! There’s __________.
f  These earrings are __________ (ugly)! I will never wear them!
g  She can’t be the main character in Beauty and the Beast: She’s
   __________ (ugly)!
h  We can’t fight back. There are __________ them. We must wait for the
   reinforcements. They’re due to arrive soon.
i  There’s an outbreak of cholera, and we don’t have __________ (means)
   __________ stop it.
j  They have cut off the power: I don’t have __________ (light)
   __________ finish reading this book.
k  I’ve eaten __________ these canapés. My stomach aches terribly as a result.
l  It’s not surprising that you have failed your exams. You’ve been going out
   __________ (often).
m  This barrow is not __________ (big) __________ carry all this rubble. We
   need a bigger one.
n  He’s __________ (short) __________ be a basketball player. He’s only 1.60
   metres tall.
o  He’s __________ (tall) __________ be a policeman. He’s 1.80 metres tall.
p  ‘Is she __________ (angry) __________ beat them?’
   ‘Well, I think she is.’
q  She’s __________ (jealous) __________ go out with someone. She’s always
   thinking that her partner is cheating on her.
r  The music’s __________ (loud). If you turn up the volume control, it will
   be __________ (loud) __________ us; so, please don’t!
s  ‘How many flowers do we need to go around?’
   ‘We have __________. Don’t worry about it. We have the right amount.’
t  This field __________ (large) __________ cultivate crops. You don’t need
   another field!
u  ‘Are there __________ (wafers)?’
   ‘Yes, there are. We won’t be able to eat them all.’
v  We don’t have __________ this gelatine. Go and get some more!
w  You’re being __________ (nasty)! Can’t you behave yourself once and
   for all?
x  Don’t go out! It’s __________ (windy). Can’t you wait until it dies down?
y  There aren’t __________ (needles and thread) __________ us __________ sew
   these garments. We’d better go and buy some more.
z  We don’t have __________ (soup spoons) __________ go round. We’re twenty
   people, and there are only fifteen!

5  Examples:
   She’s so intelligent (that) everybody in her class wants to study with her.
   She’s such an intelligent person (that) everybody in her class wants to
   study with her.
   They live so far from the city centre (that) they have to take a bus to
   go shopping.
   They stayed at such expensive hotels (that) they ran out of money
   in a week.
   It’s such good butter (that) it’s selling like hot cakes.

   So goes before adjectives and adverbs; such2 a(n), before an adjective3 
   plus a singular noun; such, before an adjective plus a plural or
   uncountable noun. We can also drop the that-clause: I like her a lot.
   She’s so tolerant!/She’s such a tolerant person! It is possible as well to
   use ‘so + an adjective + as + a full infinitive’: She was so stupid as to
   tell her parents the whole truth. The meaning is very similar to the one
   expressed by enough: She was stupid enough to tell her parents the whole
   truth. The former suggests that she told her parents the whole truth;
   the latter merely states that she was capable of telling her parents the
   whole truth, but maybe she did not. Nonetheless, this difference is not
   always noticeable:
     He is so generous as to give you what you ask him.
     He is generous enough to give you what you ask him.
   The first example is more emphatic.

a  I love talking to him. He’s __________ (nice)!
b  She has __________ (curly hair) she can’t wear it long.
c  He eats __________ (fast) he doesn’t chew his food well.
d  We had __________ (clear sky that night) we could see millions and millions
   of stars.
e  She’s __________ (skittish girl) she has no sense of responsibility.

6  Examples:
   I made so many4 mistakes in my literature paper (that) I failed.
   He bought so much milk (that) it went sour.

   So many must be followed by a plural noun; so much, by an uncountable noun.
   It is possible to leave out the noun if it is implied in the context:
   He bought so much that it went sour. If we have a pronoun after either of
   them or the noun is preceded by a determiner, of is required: There were so
   many of us/of our soldiers (that) they didn’t have the courage to attack

a  He’s got __________ (enemies) he needs an armed escort.
b  __________ (caffeine) is not good for you.
c  He has murdered __________ (people) his heart is as hard as nails.
d  They’ve seen this movie __________ (times) they’ve learnt it word for word.
e  I ate __________ (that cheese) I got diarrhea.

7  Example:
   He’s so tough a criminal/such a tough criminal that everyone fears him.

   Instead of such a(n) + an adjective + a singular countable noun, we can use
   so + an adjective + a + a singular countable noun. This structure is
   rather formal, and that should therefore be kept. The same construction is
   possible with too and how:
     It’s too good an offer to say ‘no’/This offer is too good to say ‘no’.
     How5 good a student you are!/What a good student you are!

a  She’s __________ (severe a mother)! I think she ought to be gentler.
b  He told me __________ (fascinating story) it was difficult to believe
c  He told her __________ (corny a joke) she begged him not to tell her
   any more jokes. 
d  He told her __________ (corny joke) she begged him not to tell her
   any more jokes.
e  Two million pounds! I’m not going to buy __________ (expensive a house).

8  Revision exercise.
a  The water was __________ (clear) we decided to drink some.
b  He’s got __________ (a lot of floppy disks) he can lend you as many as
   you wish.
c  He was __________ (delighted at the news of the ceasefire) he went out
   to celebrate it.
d  If you go on singing, you’ll get a sore throat. Don’t you think you have
   sung __________?
e  The air in the country is __________ (clean)! You feel __________ (good)
   when you breathe deeply.
f  Would you be __________ (kind) as not to disturb me?
g  Would you be __________ (kind) to lend me a walking stick?
h  It took him __________ (long to carve out her bust out of stone)
   night fell.
i  He hasn’t been to his home town for __________ (long time) he can hardly
   recognize it.
j  Our hotel is __________ (far from here) we should take a taxi.
k  This crate is __________ (heavy) __________ a woman of your age
   __________ carry. I’ll do it for you.
l  She flies off the handle __________ (easily) you’d better not tell her
   a word about it.
m  This bloodhound is __________ (good) __________ you __________ go hunting.
   If I were you, I’d take it.
n  You’re __________ (long way from the truth) you’ll never be able to find
   it out.
o  She’s __________ (pretty a girl) every boy in her class is mad about her.
p  She’s __________ (pretty girl) every boy in her class has fallen madly
   in love with her.
q  He brought __________ (long rope) they had to cut it in two.
r  There were __________ (people at that party) we decided to leave.
s  It’s __________ (good a day) we should go out for a walk.
t  We need __________ (money) we won’t be able to get it for tomorrow evening.
u  He was __________ (forgetful) as to leave his keys at home almost
   every day.
v  This stretch of road isn’t __________ (long) __________ a plane
   __________ take off or land. We need a longer stretch of road.
w  He’s __________ (nuisance a boy) to spend the evening!
x  She tells __________ (lies) no-one believes a word she says.
y  They were __________ (helpful) as to do everything for us.
z  She’s __________ (old) __________ you! You’re only a boy of fourteen,
   and she’s a fully grown woman.

1  See unit 5 and unit 18, section 16 (footnote 14).
2  Observe the following as well: Such is her beauty that she always obtains
   what she wishes/Her beauty is such that she always obtains what she wishes.
   See unit 29, section 2.
3  The adjective is not always necessary:
     When she got there, the house was in such a mess (that) she couldn’t
     believe her eyes.
     She talked such rubbish (that) everybody laughed at it. (‘Rubbish’ is
     an uncountable noun, so we do not use ‘a’.)
4  Instead of so many and so much, we may use such a lot of:
     I made such a lot of mistakes in my literature paper (that) I failed.
     He bought such a lot of milk (that) it went sour.

   If we remove the noun, of must be dropped:
     I made such a lot (that) I failed.
     He bought such a lot (that) it went sour.
5  See unit 4, section 22.
Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

     Pages: 1 and the key

1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)
3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)
4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)
5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)
6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)
7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)
8  Irregular verbs
9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)
10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)
11 The genitive case (the key)
12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)
13 Gender (the key)
14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)
16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)
17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)
18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
19 Adjective order (the key)
20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)
21 Do and make (the key)
22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)
24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)
25 Passive sentences (the key)
26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)
27 Purpose (the key)
28 Word order (the key)
29 Inversion (the key)
30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)
31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
32 Phrasal verbs (the key)

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