English Grammar Step by Step
||fawn, young rabbit
|cat, tomcat, tom
||chick (newborn), chicken (young)
|cock pheasant, pheasant
||hen pheasant, pheasant
|earl (British), count (European)
||son (male), daughter (female), child (male and female); baby (newborn or very young)
||brother-in-law (male), sister-in-law (female)
||prince (male), princess (female)
||foal (newborn); colt (male), filly (female)
||cousin (male and female)
Fill in the blanks with the appropiate noun.
a "His __________ is going to have a __________."
"Really! I didn't know she was pregnant. I thought they didn't want to have children."
b She is a __________, as she's the __________ of a duke.
c Both the __________ and the __________ are very important at the early stages of a child.
d She serves drinks in a bar. I think she's the best __________ I have ever met.
e When his wife died, he became a __________.
f The offspring of cats are called __________.
g My cousin's mother is my __________.
h __________ and __________! I should like to propose a toast for the next governor.
i An unmarried old man is a __________; and a single old lady, a __________.
j Someone whose job is to show people to their seats in a cinema is called an __________.
k The __________ of the school lives just round the corner. ;She's very talkative.
l My husband's brother is my __________.
m A king and a __________'s son is a __________.
n The opposite word for "monk" is "__________".
o This __________ has just had piglets.
p More than one __________ in a henhouse is not a good idea, since they would fight against one another.
q A man who is going to marry is the __________; a woman, the __________.
r A male horse is called "__________"; a female, "_________"; and the baby, "__________".
s The baby of a tiger is a __________.
t __________ and __________ only appear in fairy stories. They have magic powers.
u A __________ is a girl who sees to the needs of passengers.
v A person who writes poems is a __________.
w The son of my sister is my __________.
x The masculine term for "ewe' is "_________".
y Look at that __________ with her ducklings!
z A person who has a lot of money is a __________.
(plural) refer to people; it
(plural), to things and animals. Here is a list of the most common masculine and feminine nouns. It is also worth noticing that it
is used when the sex of a baby is unknown. We may ask Is it a he or a she?
if we want to know the sex of a baby. As you can see, the baby has been included when possible.
People personify things (like cars) or animals when they have an affection for them. She
is quite common with countries and ships: Isn't she lovely!
(Referring to a boat.)
And last but not least, some words refer both to a man and to a woman: pupil. If we want to specify the sex, we add male or female, man or woman, and so forth:
boy-friend → girl-friend
male pupil → female pupil
headmaster → headmistress (headteacher is possible both for a man and for a woman.)
a man student → a woman student
barman → barmaid
he-goat → she-goat
Generally speaking, suffixes ending in -ess, -ette
are avoided nowadays, ie we prefer "author" to "authoress
" to refer to a woman.
It is quite common to use the masculine form to refer to a female animal when we are not interested in its gender. Occasionally, the female term may be used to refer to the male. For instance, "duck".
"Buck" refers to male animals, especially to deer and rabbits. "Doe" is the feminine term: a buck rabbit → a doe rabbit
. See "stag"
"Bull", "cow" and "calf" may refer to large animals, such as elephants and whales.
"Cock" and "hen" are used to indicate the sex of birds; "chick", for the baby.
In the plural, we use "children
". See unit 12, section 10
Words containing -man
in their masculine forms have -woman
in their feminine forms: policeman → policewoman
. If we wish to refer to both a man and a woman, it is much better to use -person
(because the use of -man
is considered to be sexist by many people): chairman
(male and female). Sometimes, we do not even need the word "person": chair
(instead of chairperson). Occasionally, we do not use"-person
": police officer
(a man or a woman), policeman
(a man), policewoman
The plural of "man" is "men"; of "woman", "women". See unit 12, sections 10
We can have other combinations with "step-", like stepfather.
Author: Miquel Molina i Diez
Pages: 1 and the key
1 Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
2 Short answers (Page 2 and the key)
3 Question tags (Page 2 and the key)
4 Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)
5 So, neither, nor, either (the key)
6 Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)
7 Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)
8 Irregular verbs
9 Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)
10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)
11 The genitive case (the key)
12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)
13 Gender (the key)
14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)
16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)
17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)
18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
19 Adjective order (the key)
20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)
21 Do and make (the key)
22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)
24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)
25 Passive sentences (the key)
26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)
27 Purpose (the key)
28 Word order (the key)
29 Inversion (the key)
30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)
31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
32 Phrasal verbs (the key)