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English Grammar Step by Step


     UNIT 27
     PURPOSE


   Rewrite the sentences below using to, in order not to,
   so that, etc.

1  Examples:
   I sent her a bunch of flowers because I wanted to make it up
   with her.
   I sent her a bunch of flowers to make it up with her.

   To1 can be used to express purpose. In order to and so as to2
   may replace to, but are more emphatic and formal: In order
   to/So as to be there on time, I had to hire a taxi. See also
   unit 23, section 11.

a  I entered Mr Greenís office because I wished to talk to him.
b  We came in the house because we wanted to put out the lights.
c  I came back because I had to take care of my parents.
d  She winked at me because she wanted to let me know that she
   was joking.
e  I have come because Iíd like to give you a piece of advice.


2  Examples:
   He took off his shoes because he did not want his parents to
   hear him.
   He took off his shoes in order not to/so as not to be heard
   by his parents.

   In the negative, we use in order not to or so as not to.

a  He felt very miserable, so he looked for someone to share his
   life with.
b  I didnít drop in at your home last night because I didnít
   want to disturb you.
c  I wonít light my Havana because it might bother her.
d  He destroyed all proof against him because he did not want
   to be discovered.
e  I was very cold, so I put on the stove.


3  Examples:
   (1) We carve meat with this knife.
   This knife is for carving meat (with).
   (2) Iíll give you ten pounds because you have washed my car.
   Iíll give you ten pounds for3 washing/having washed my car.
   (3) This food is not fit to be eaten.
   This food is not fit for eating.

   For + a gerund indicates the function of something. (1) It can
   also indicate the reason why we do something. (2) It can have
   a passive meaning, too. (3) See also unit 23, section 20.

a  The reason why he went to prison was that he held up a
   chemistís.
b  You grow plants in a flowerpot.
c  These pictures are not to be sold.
d  You read with a book.
e  You have not done your homework. So youíll be punished.


4  Revision exercise.
a  Sheís studying because she wants to become a very important
   person in life.
b  The reason that I was so happy was that I had finished my
   studies.
c  I didnít want to see them, so I didnít open the door.
d  You remove your pencil marks with a rubber.
e  We went on with the deal because we didnít want to leave them
   high and dry at the last minute.
f  I would like to take tomorrow off, as I want to accompany
   my husband to the doctor.
g  They went on a hunger strike because they wanted to get
   better conditions in gaol.
h  They bought a country pad because they wished to have some
   peace and quiet.
i  Iíve just bought a CD player, since I want to give it to
   my daughter for her birthday.
j  I have bought some clothes-pegs because I want to hang the
   washing out.
k  He did not want to worry her, so he did not tell her what
   happened.
l  If we want to get there before dark, we must leave now.
m  She was very friendly to him because she wanted to nick his
   wallet.
n  They wanted to swipe his walkman, so they mugged him.
o  She was taken to the police station because she had lifted
   some records from the shop next door.
p  We filled the car up because we didnít want to run out of
   petrol.
q  I did not want to hear what they were talking about, which is
   why I put the music louder.
r  I had no intention of talking to him, so I didnít answer the
   phone.
s  I shut up because I did not want to interfere in matters which
   had nothing to do with me.
t  He married her because he wanted to spend the rest of his life
   with her.
u  I find it necessary to test you on your French, so you must
   take an exam tomorrow.
v  She hid a tiny microphone in his house because she wanted to
   spy upon him.
w  I put out the central heating because I did not want to waste
   fuel.
x  The reason I bought my son an ice-cream wafer was that he had
   been a good boy.
y  You got full marks in your history paper, so Iíll buy you the
   bike I promised.
z  She set off for Paris before sunrise because she wanted to be
   there by midday.


5   Examples4:
   She waters her plants twice a week. She does not want
   them to wither.
   She waters her plants twice a week so that they will not/
   do not wither.
   Iíll correct all the mistakes in your composition. I hope you
   will not/do not make them again.
   Iíll correct all the mistakes in your composition so that you
   will not/do not make them again.
   He told Mary his feelings last night because he wanted her to
   know that he loves her.
   He told Mary his feelings last night so that she would know
   that he loves her.
   We must leave now if we donít want to arrive late.
   We must leave now so that we wonít/donít arrive late/We must
   leave now in order not to/so as not to arrive late.

   We use so that (or more formally, in order that) + a subject
   + a verb. Observe the following as well:

MAIN VERB PURPOSE CLAUSE5
present or future will
present
can
may (formal)
past would
could
should (formal)
might (very formal)

a  She wants him to go with her on holiday, so sheís helping him    with his project. b  These brave men and women gave their lives because they wanted    the humankind to have a better world. c  Iíll give you some money because you will have to pay for the    bus. d  He did not send her any letter, phone her or write to her. He    did not want her to know he was alive. e  We are leaving early in the morning. We want to arrive there    by noon. 6  Examples:    He took off his shoes in order not to/so as not to be heard by    his parents/He took off his shoes so that his parents would    not hear him.    He took off his shoes to prevent his parents (from) hearing    him/to avoid being heard by his parents.    We must leave now so that we wonít arrive late/We must leave    now in order not to/so as not to arrive late.    We must leave now to avoid arriving late.    She waters her plants twice a week so that they wonít/donít    wither.    She waters her plants twice a week to prevent them    (from) withering.    Instead of so that (or in order that) + a subject6 + a    negative verb, we can use to prevent + an object (+ from)    + a gerund. In order not to (or so as not to) may be    replaced by to avoid + a gerund. a  He went to live abroad so that he wouldnít have to pay    maintenance to his wife for his four children. b  He did all his homework so that his teacher would not tell him    off. c  He disguised as a woman in order not to be recognised. d  He hid behind a bush so as not to be seen by his pursuers. e  He did not report the incident to his superiors in order that    they should not think that he was to blame for it. 7  Examples7:    I did not take my fatherís car because he might have become    angry.    I did not take my fatherís car lest he (should) become/in case    he became (or should become) angry. (This was a possibility.)    Iíll wait for him, as he might come.    Iíll wait for him in case he comes/should come.    I did not tell them a word of it, since they could have    thought I was reponsible for it.    I did not tell them a word of it in case they thought/should    think I was responsible for it.    I did not tell them a word of it lest they (should) think I    was responsible for it.    If we have a present or future tense in the main clause, we    use a present tense after in case; if we have a past tense,    in case is followed by a past tense. In case + a subject +    should + infinitive is another alternative to in case + a    subject + a present or past tense, but it suggests a smaller    possibility. As regards lest, it is followed by should or by    a subjunctive8, and is very formal. a  Iíll leave him a message in the answering machine because he    might go home this afternoon. b  He wanted to kiss her, but he did not, as he thought that she    could reject him. c  I didnít tell my parents that I had failed my literature    paper because they might have punished me by making me stay    at home in the evenings for a fortnight. d  She did not ask him to go to the opera with her because she    thought he could turn down her invitation. e  He went to the same place they met for the first time because    he thought she could be there. 8  Revision exercise: a  We put the lights off, as we didnít want anybody to know that    we were in. b  The bank has employed some security guards because they do not    want to be held up again. c  They didnít make out an invoice because they did not want us    to pay VAT. d  She left her purse at home because she was afraid that    somebody might steal it. e  She wanted him to know she was at home, so she put on some    music. f  I hailed a cab because I didnít want to be late. g  Iíve phoned them because I want to have my flat furnished. h  He kept still for almost an hour because he was afraid that    the enemy could see him. i  I tore them off a strip because I did not want it to happen    again. j  I brought the electric drill because I wanted to hang a    picture here. k  We listen to music with a cassette player. l  He settled the bill at once because he didnít want to be    surcharged for late payment. m  They infringed the law, so they were taken to the police    station. n  They walled the swimming-pool because they did not want    their children to fall into it and drown. o  I donít want you to forget me, so Iíll give you a photograph    of me. p  They didnít want to go hungry, so they took a lot of food    with them. q  She vaccinated her children against smallpox because she    did not want them to catch it. r  I went to live in the country because I did not want anybody    to disturb me. s  She did not want anyone to beat her children, so she taught    them self-defence. t  I read a lot of German books because I want to improve my    German. u  They shot him dead because they wanted to make sure that he    could not betray them. v  He did not want anybody to know his real identity, so he gave    them a false name. w  We need a tennis ball. We want to play with it. x  He read her one of his poems because he wanted to impress her. y  He didnít want them to bully him, so he stood up to them. z  They may still come, so Iíll wait for them. ____________________ 1  To can be replaced with expressions such as with the aim of,    with a view to, with/for the purpose of, the purpose of,    someoneís purpose in:      I sent her some flowers with the aim of making it up with      her.      I sent her some flowers with a view to making it up with      her.      I sent her some flowers with/for the purpose of making it      up with her.      The purpose of my flowers/of my sending her some flowers      was to make it up with her.      My purpose in sending her some flowers was to make it up      with her. 2  Compare these two sentences:      She put her children to bed in order to/so as to relax      a bit. (= She put her children to bed because she wanted      to relax a bit.)      She put her children to bed to relax a bit. (= She      wanted her children to relax a bit.) 3  Other alternatives:      You have washed my car; as a result, Iíll give you      ten pounds/You have washed my car; Iíll give you      ten pounds as a result.      The reason why I give you ten pounds is that you have      washed my car. 4  See unit 22, section 37. 5  More examples:      I have given her a key so that she can/may enter the      house whenever she wants.      He did not answer the phone so that noboby would/should      know that he was at home.      The government is going to build new schools in order      that our children may have a better education.      The authorities were doing further research in order      that the murderers might/should be arrested and judged.      I translated the letter into English so that everybody      could/would/should understand what it said. 6  The subject must be different from the one in the main clause    to follow this rule. 7  See units 22 (section 37) and 24 (section 16). 8  Lest may also be followed by a present or past tense: I didnít    take my fatherís car lest he became angry. However, the other    alternatives given are much better. See also unit 22, section    37.
Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

     Pages: 1 and the key

   Contents
   Introduction
   Notes
1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)
3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)
4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)
5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)
6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)
7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)
8  Irregular verbs
9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)
10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)
11 The genitive case (the key)
12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)
13 Gender (the key)
14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)
16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)
17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)
18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
19 Adjective order (the key)
20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)
21 Do and make (the key)
22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)
24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)
25 Passive sentences (the key)
26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)
27 Purpose (the key)
28 Word order (the key)
29 Inversion (the key)
30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)
31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
32 Phrasal verbs (the key)



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