English Grammar Step by Step
Rewrite the sentences below using to, in order not to,
so that, etc.
I sent her a bunch of flowers because I wanted to make it up
I sent her a bunch of flowers to make it up with her.
To can be used to express purpose. In order to and so as to
may replace to, but are more emphatic and formal: In order
to/So as to be there on time, I had to hire a taxi. See also
unit 23, section 11.
a I entered Mr Greenís office because I wished to talk to him.
b We came in the house because we wanted to put out the lights.
c I came back because I had to take care of my parents.
d She winked at me because she wanted to let me know that she
e I have come because Iíd like to give you a piece of advice.
He took off his shoes because he did not want his parents to
He took off his shoes in order not to/so as not to be heard
by his parents.
In the negative, we use in order not to or so as not to.
a He felt very miserable, so he looked for someone to share his
b I didnít drop in at your home last night because I didnít
want to disturb you.
c I wonít light my Havana because it might bother her.
d He destroyed all proof against him because he did not want
to be discovered.
e I was very cold, so I put on the stove.
(1) We carve meat with this knife.
This knife is for carving meat (with).
(2) Iíll give you ten pounds because you have washed my car.
Iíll give you ten pounds for washing/having washed my car.
(3) This food is not fit to be eaten.
This food is not fit for eating.
For + a gerund indicates the function of something. (1) It can
also indicate the reason why we do something. (2) It can have
a passive meaning, too. (3) See also unit 23, section 20.
a The reason why he went to prison was that he held up a
b You grow plants in a flowerpot.
c These pictures are not to be sold.
d You read with a book.
e You have not done your homework. So youíll be punished.
4 Revision exercise.
a Sheís studying because she wants to become a very important
person in life.
b The reason that I was so happy was that I had finished my
c I didnít want to see them, so I didnít open the door.
d You remove your pencil marks with a rubber.
e We went on with the deal because we didnít want to leave them
high and dry at the last minute.
f I would like to take tomorrow off, as I want to accompany
my husband to the doctor.
g They went on a hunger strike because they wanted to get
better conditions in gaol.
h They bought a country pad because they wished to have some
peace and quiet.
i Iíve just bought a CD player, since I want to give it to
my daughter for her birthday.
j I have bought some clothes-pegs because I want to hang the
k He did not want to worry her, so he did not tell her what
l If we want to get there before dark, we must leave now.
m She was very friendly to him because she wanted to nick his
n They wanted to swipe his walkman, so they mugged him.
o She was taken to the police station because she had lifted
some records from the shop next door.
p We filled the car up because we didnít want to run out of
q I did not want to hear what they were talking about, which is
why I put the music louder.
r I had no intention of talking to him, so I didnít answer the
s I shut up because I did not want to interfere in matters which
had nothing to do with me.
t He married her because he wanted to spend the rest of his life
u I find it necessary to test you on your French, so you must
take an exam tomorrow.
v She hid a tiny microphone in his house because she wanted to
spy upon him.
w I put out the central heating because I did not want to waste
x The reason I bought my son an ice-cream wafer was that he had
been a good boy.
y You got full marks in your history paper, so Iíll buy you the
bike I promised.
z She set off for Paris before sunrise because she wanted to be
there by midday.
She waters her plants twice a week. She does not want
them to wither.
She waters her plants twice a week so that they will not/
do not wither.
Iíll correct all the mistakes in your composition. I hope you
will not/do not make them again.
Iíll correct all the mistakes in your composition so that you
will not/do not make them again.
He told Mary his feelings last night because he wanted her to
know that he loves her.
He told Mary his feelings last night so that she would know
that he loves her.
We must leave now if we donít want to arrive late.
We must leave now so that we wonít/donít arrive late/We must
leave now in order not to/so as not to arrive late.
We use so that (or more formally, in order that) + a subject
+ a verb. Observe the following as well:
a She wants him to go with her on holiday, so sheís helping him
with his project.
b These brave men and women gave their lives because they wanted
the humankind to have a better world.
c Iíll give you some money because you will have to pay for the
d He did not send her any letter, phone her or write to her. He
did not want her to know he was alive.
e We are leaving early in the morning. We want to arrive there
He took off his shoes in order not to/so as not to be heard by
his parents/He took off his shoes so that his parents would
not hear him.
He took off his shoes to prevent his parents (from) hearing
him/to avoid being heard by his parents.
We must leave now so that we wonít arrive late/We must leave
now in order not to/so as not to arrive late.
We must leave now to avoid arriving late.
She waters her plants twice a week so that they wonít/donít
She waters her plants twice a week to prevent them
Instead of so that (or in order that) + a subject + a
negative verb, we can use to prevent + an object (+ from)
+ a gerund. In order not to (or so as not to) may be
replaced by to avoid + a gerund.
a He went to live abroad so that he wouldnít have to pay
maintenance to his wife for his four children.
b He did all his homework so that his teacher would not tell him
c He disguised as a woman in order not to be recognised.
d He hid behind a bush so as not to be seen by his pursuers.
e He did not report the incident to his superiors in order that
they should not think that he was to blame for it.
I did not take my fatherís car because he might have become
I did not take my fatherís car lest he (should) become/in case
he became (or should become) angry. (This was a possibility.)
Iíll wait for him, as he might come.
Iíll wait for him in case he comes/should come.
I did not tell them a word of it, since they could have
thought I was reponsible for it.
I did not tell them a word of it in case they thought/should
think I was responsible for it.
I did not tell them a word of it lest they (should) think I
was responsible for it.
If we have a present or future tense in the main clause, we
use a present tense after in case; if we have a past tense,
in case is followed by a past tense. In case + a subject +
should + infinitive is another alternative to in case + a
subject + a present or past tense, but it suggests a smaller
possibility. As regards lest, it is followed by should or by
a subjunctive, and is very formal.
a Iíll leave him a message in the answering machine because he
might go home this afternoon.
b He wanted to kiss her, but he did not, as he thought that she
could reject him.
c I didnít tell my parents that I had failed my literature
paper because they might have punished me by making me stay
at home in the evenings for a fortnight.
d She did not ask him to go to the opera with her because she
thought he could turn down her invitation.
e He went to the same place they met for the first time because
he thought she could be there.
8 Revision exercise:
a We put the lights off, as we didnít want anybody to know that
we were in.
b The bank has employed some security guards because they do not
want to be held up again.
c They didnít make out an invoice because they did not want us
to pay VAT.
d She left her purse at home because she was afraid that
somebody might steal it.
e She wanted him to know she was at home, so she put on some
f I hailed a cab because I didnít want to be late.
g Iíve phoned them because I want to have my flat furnished.
h He kept still for almost an hour because he was afraid that
the enemy could see him.
i I tore them off a strip because I did not want it to happen
j I brought the electric drill because I wanted to hang a
k We listen to music with a cassette player.
l He settled the bill at once because he didnít want to be
surcharged for late payment.
m They infringed the law, so they were taken to the police
n They walled the swimming-pool because they did not want
their children to fall into it and drown.
o I donít want you to forget me, so Iíll give you a photograph
p They didnít want to go hungry, so they took a lot of food
q She vaccinated her children against smallpox because she
did not want them to catch it.
r I went to live in the country because I did not want anybody
to disturb me.
s She did not want anyone to beat her children, so she taught
t I read a lot of German books because I want to improve my
u They shot him dead because they wanted to make sure that he
could not betray them.
v He did not want anybody to know his real identity, so he gave
them a false name.
w We need a tennis ball. We want to play with it.
x He read her one of his poems because he wanted to impress her.
y He didnít want them to bully him, so he stood up to them.
z They may still come, so Iíll wait for them.
To can be replaced with expressions such as with the aim of,
with a view to, with/for the purpose of, the purpose of,
someoneís purpose in:
I sent her some flowers with the aim of making it up with
I sent her some flowers with a view to making it up with
I sent her some flowers with/for the purpose of making it
up with her.
The purpose of my flowers/of my sending her some flowers
was to make it up with her.
My purpose in sending her some flowers was to make it up
Compare these two sentences:
She put her children to bed in order to/so as to relax
a bit. (= She put her children to bed because she wanted
to relax a bit.)
She put her children to bed to relax a bit. (= She
wanted her children to relax a bit.)
You have washed my car; as a result, Iíll give you
ten pounds/You have washed my car; Iíll give you
ten pounds as a result.
The reason why I give you ten pounds is that you have
washed my car.
See unit 22, section 37.
I have given her a key so that she can/may enter the
house whenever she wants.
He did not answer the phone so that noboby would/should
know that he was at home.
The government is going to build new schools in order
that our children may have a better education.
The authorities were doing further research in order
that the murderers might/should be arrested and judged.
I translated the letter into English so that everybody
could/would/should understand what it said.
The subject must be different from the one in the main clause
to follow this rule.
See units 22 (section 37) and 24 (section 16).
Lest may also be followed by a present or past tense: I didnít
take my fatherís car lest he became angry. However, the other
alternatives given are much better. See also unit 22, section
present or future
might (very formal)
Author: Miquel Molina i Diez
Pages: 1 and the key
1 Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
2 Short answers (Page 2 and the key)
3 Question tags (Page 2 and the key)
4 Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)
5 So, neither, nor, either (the key)
6 Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)
7 Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)
8 Irregular verbs
9 Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)
10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)
11 The genitive case (the key)
12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)
13 Gender (the key)
14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)
16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)
17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)
18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
19 Adjective order (the key)
20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)
21 Do and make (the key)
22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)
24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)
25 Passive sentences (the key)
26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)
27 Purpose (the key)
28 Word order (the key)
29 Inversion (the key)
30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)
31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
32 Phrasal verbs (the key)