English Grammar Step by Step

     UNIT 12

   Change the singular words given in the exercises below into

1  Examples:

   After -ch, -sh, -s, -ss, -x, -z and -zz, we add -es.

a  fax
b  mass
c  gas
d  wish
e  match

2  Examples:
   play→plays (vowel + y)
   spy3→spies (consonant + y→i + es)

a  journey
b  boy
c  fly
d  university
e  salary

3  Examples:

   -fe and -f often change to -ves when making the plural.
   However, the following words do not undergo any change:
   At times, both combinations are possible, though:
     dwarf→dwarfs or dwarves
     handkerchief→handkerchiefs or handkerchieves
     hoof→hoofs or hooves
     scarf→scarfs or sacarves
     turf→turfs or turves
     wharf→wharfs or wharves

a  life
b  self
c  roof
d  turf
e  safe

4  Examples:
   kilo→kilos (‘kilo’ is an abbreviation for ‘kilogramme’.)
   concerto→concertos (The origin of this word is Italian, that
   is, foreign. ‘Concerti’ is also possible, but less usual.)
   folio→folios (The -o is preceded by a vowel.)

   The -o ending makes the plural by adding -es. Yet, it only
   takes an -s with abbreviations and words whose origin is
   foreign4: bistro, casino, canto, curio, concerto, dynamo,
   hello (also hallo or hullo), hippo, inferno, kilo, kimono,
   photo, piano, pro, rhino, solo, soprano, torso and tremolo.
   Sometimes, both combinations are possible: banjo→banjos/
   banjoes; cargo→cargos/cargoes; commando→ commandos/
   commandoes; dodo→dodos/dodoes; fiasco→fiascos/fiascoes; 
   flamingo→flamingos/flamingoes; ghetto→ghettos/ghettoes;
   innuendo→innuendos/innuendoes; halo→halos/haloes;
   lasso→lassos/lassoes; mango→mangos/mangoes; motto→mottos/
   mottoes; placebo→placebos/placeboes; tornado→tornados/
   tornadoes; veto→vetos/vetoes; volcano→volcanos/volcanoes.
   We add only one -s to the singular noun if the o is
   preceded by another vowel: kangaroo→kangaroos.

a  hero
b  tomato
c  photo
d  bamboo
e  canto

5  Example:

   ‘Skull’ has a different ending from those given in the
   sections above, so we form the plural with an -s.

a  row
b  sword
c  navel
d  oven
e  ornament

6  Revision exercise.
a  echo
b  calf
c  country
d  microwave
e  confession
f  judge
g  banquet
h  thief
i  kimono
j  hooligan
k  pro
l  quiz
m  wharf
n  cuff
o  cargo
p  switch
q  slide
r  reel
s  armpit
t  burglar alarm5 
u  brother-in-law
v  trip
w  dwarf
x  inferno
y  prey
z  dent

7  Example:

   Words of Greek origin ending in -is, form the plural by
   changing the -i- into -e-, as in the above example.
   Nevertheless, there are a few exceptions: chrysalis→
   chrysalises, chrysalides; iris→irises; metropolis→
   metropolises. Axis→axes, pelvis→pelvises, penis→penises
   (or penes) and testis→testes come from Latin.

a  diagnosis
b  oasis
c  thesis
d  axis
e  metamorphosis

8  Example:
   thorax→thoraces/thoraxes (The Latin language took it from

   Some Latin-origin substantives ending in -ex or -ix have two
   plural forms: one regular and one irregular, as seen above.
   Occasionally, we might have a variation in meaning. For
   example, appendix can refer to a book (appendices) and to
   a body (appendixes, appendices). The noun ‘mix’ is not
   regarded as foreign by speakers of English; therefore, only
   the regular plural form is possible: mixes.

a  index
b  complex6 
c  telex7 
d  matrix
e  cortex

9  Revision exercise.
a  metropolis
b  vest
c  drop
d  rattlesnake
e  trolley
f  lamb
g  waistcoat
h  leaf
i  handkerchief
j  brush
k  carriage
l  church
m  bundle
n  crutch
o  windscreen wiper
p  flat battery
q  thorn
r  dish
s  frog
t  wolf
u  soprano
v  wharf
w  thermos flask
x  hypothesis
y  scarf
z  chimney

10 Examples:

a  tooth
b  woman
c  mouse
d  person
e  louse

11 Examples:
   dice, die (dated)→dice
   fish→fish/fishes (types of fish)
   Inuit→Inuits/Inuit (or Innuit→Innuits/Innuit)
   Koodoo/kudu→koodoo/kudu, koodoos/kudus
   rhinoceros→rhinoceroses/rhinoceros (also rhino→rhinos/rhino)

a  deer
b  buffalo
c  salmon
d  series
e  herring

12 Revision exercise.
a  man
b  tornado
c  ellipsis
d  sheep
e  plug
f  socket
g  adaptor
h  glass
i  neklace
j  address book
k  gallery
l  headquarters
m  mango
n  tremolo
o  vegetable rack
p  cushion
q  testimony
r  jew
s  water-lily
t  catch-phrase
u  ox
v  volcano
w  basis
x  vertex
y  seducer
z  dint

1  Busses is possible as well, especially in American English.
2  Note that the consonant is doubled too.
3  Notice the following: chilli→chillies (chili→chilies is
4  Although ‘potato’ is taken from the Castilian word ‘patata’ —a
   blend from the Taino forms ‘papa’ and ‘batata’—, it should be
   considered as an English one, because it has wholly adapted
   to the language.
5  Compounds generally make plural the last element. All the same,
   if we have an adjective in the second element, only the first
   element is made plural: court-martial→courts-martial.

   Phrasal verbs may become nouns. In this case, we add an -s to
   the end (break-up→break-ups, lay-by→lay-bys, turn-off→
   turn-offs, shake-out→shake-outs):
     She broke up with him.
     Their break-up caused him a lot of pain.
   However, exceptions can occur: passer-by→passers-by. Note
   too sister-in-law→sisters-in-law. Sister-in-laws is also
   possible in informal British English. 

   When the words man or woman are in the compound, both nouns
   take the plural form: woman priest→women priests. If they
   are written as one word, and man or woman come first in the
   compound, they usually behave as ordinary nouns: manservant→
   manservants (also menservants), manhunt→manhunts, manhour→
   manhours; but statesman→ statesmen, sportswoman→sportswomen, 
6  The plural of this word is regular. This noun was taken
   from French. It originally comes from Latin.
7  It is a blend: teleprinter + exchange. It has a regular plural.
8  In very formal contexts, ‘persons’ is possible.
9  Words like buffalo, carp, crab usually make the plural with
   an -s, but no -s is added when they are used in specialized
   contexts. For instance, a hunter would say I killed two buffalo
   yesterday, but some Sunday trippers would say We saw a lot of
   buffaloes this morning.
Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

     Pages: 1, 2 and the key

1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)
3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)
4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)
5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)
6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)
7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)
8  Irregular verbs
9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)
10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)
11 The genitive case (the key)
12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)
13 Gender (the key)
14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)
16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)
17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)
18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
19 Adjective order (the key)
20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)
21 Do and make (the key)
22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)
24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)
25 Passive sentences (the key)
26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)
27 Purpose (the key)
28 Word order (the key)
29 Inversion (the key)
30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)
31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
32 Phrasal verbs (the key)

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