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English Grammar Step by Step: • Contents

Intermediate English Grammar:
• Contents
• Unit 9:  Irregular verbs

English Grammar for Beginners:
• Contents
• Unit 1:  A, an, some any and the
• Unit 2:  Some, any + body/one, + thing, + where
• Unit 3:  Personal pronouns and possessives
• Unit 4:  Reflexive pronouns, the reciprocal pronoun "each other" and object pronouns
• Unit 5:  List of irregular verbs

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English Grammar Step by Step

     UNIT 5

1  Examples: (Use so and the words in brackets.)
   óIíve got a terrible cold. (I)
   óSo have I2. (interrogative order, or inversion3)

a  My father has been a pilot for ten years. (mine)
b  Iím going to the hairdresserís. (I)
c  I want to become a plumber when I grow up. (Peter)
d  He bought a bottle-opener. (my grandmother)
e  We should visit our parents. (they)
f  Mary lives abroad. (Amanda)
g  Iíll see to it right away. (I)
h  John teaches French. (Michael)
i  Anita reads a lot. (the people next door)
j  You are getting on my nerves. (you)

2  Example: (Use so and the words in brackets.)
   I love peanunts. (my wife)
   I love peanunts, and4 so does my wife.

a  This barrel is leaking. (that one)
b  We are going to follow their advice. (Molly)
c  Our cat miaows every night. (hers)
d  My uncle always apologises when he does something
   wrong. (my aunt)
e  Brenda is an air-hostess. (Nancy)
f  She worships money. (her husband)
g  You always arrive late. (your partner)
h  Paul plays cards once in a blue moon. (Richard)
i  He spent all his wealth on charity organisations.
   (his cousin)
j  He stepped in a dogís excrement. (she)

3  Examples: (Use neither or nor, and the words in brackets.)
   óI wonít/will not accept bribes. (I)
   óNeither/Nor will I5. (ĎNorí is less formal.)

   Barely, escarcely, hardly, never, and so on, have a negative
   meaning. Consequently, they are treated as negatives:
     I never eat garlic.
     Neither do I.
   See also units 3 (section 11) and 14 (section 9).

a  Our friendship will never perish. (theirs)
b  I wasnít introduced to the monarchs. (Gertrude)
c  Her daughter doesnít take care of her. (her son)
d  They wonít refund me the money I paid for it. (we)
e  They didnít take him seriously. (you)
f  They couldnít have given themselves up to the police.
   (my niece)
g  I wasnít informed of your resignation. (my nephew)
h  He didnít know that youíve been given the sack.
   (his cousin)
i  They werenít caught red-handed. (Gloria)
j  I donít want to grow old. (we)

4  Examples: (Use neither or nor, and the words in brackets.)
   They didnít get lost. (I)
   They didnít get lost, and neither/nor did I.

   But is sometimes used instead of and: They didnít get lost,
   but6 neither/nor did I.

a  I never carry a revolver. (Alan)
b  They rarely brush their teeth. (Linda)
c  He isnít a cook. (she)
d  She wasnít sent to jail for theft. (her husband)
e  The shops werenít shut. (the restaurants)
f  My sister never takes things for granted.
   (my stepdaughter)
g  I didnít subscribe to his point of view. (my friends)
h  We didnít accept the harsh reality. (they)
i  We wonít polish the floor. (she)
j  I neednít wash the dishes. (my sister)

5  Revision exercise.
a  You will be put behind bars. (I)
b  He wasnít tired out. (Rita)
c  We were outraged by her behaviour. (we)
d  We should memorise it word for word. (you)
e  They wonít let you by. (he)
f  I canít work out how much it will cost us. (I)
g  You should slow down at weekends. (your partner)
h  She refuses to talk to me. (her father)
i  I didnít witness the accident. (my children)
j  Edgar and Jane have missed their flight. (we)
k  Her children mean the world to her. (her husband)
l  He gave the lurid details of his crime. (his lawyer)
m  Gloria didnít scorch your jacket. (Constance)
n  My history teacher failed me without any concern.
   (my literature teacher)
o  Her story made me cold with fear. (his)
p  Her boy-friend sat next to me. (her sister)
q  His grandad heard her saying that we are very spoilt.
   (my mum)
r  My son came home roaring drunk last night. (mine)
s  Sheís got a henpecked husband. (her sister)
t  Raymond dropped us a line. (Philippa)
u  Olive didnít curl her hair. (Nicola)
v  He wasnít shaken by the death of his ex.
   (her brother)
w  We walked arm in arm along the corridor. (they)
x  Weíre heading for Colombia. (we)
y  The main character in my novel is a little girl.
   (the main character in my novel)
z  Her uncle is loaded. (her man)

6  Examples: (Now use either)
   óI wonít eat this porridge. (he)
   óHe wonít (eat it) either.
   I wonít eat this porridge, and/but he wonít (eat it) either.

a  He didnít pound on my door last night. (she)
b  They donít usually tease him. (we)
c  We donít have a spare wheel. (we)
d  I canít go step by step. (Sarah)
e  They havenít got a grater. (we)
f  The motel wasnít crowded. (the restaurant)
g  Tom canít milk a cow. (Sheila)
h  I will never figure Steve out. (Peter)
i  Iím not going to put up with her jokes any more.
   (her boy-friend)
j  Annette wasnít elected chairwoman at random. (her mother)

7  Examples: (either...or; neither...nor)
   Either Eve or Ann is pulling my leg.
   Neither Eve nor Ann is taking swimming lessons.
   Either my nephew or my neighbours have made up the story.
   Either my neighbours or my nephew has made up the story.
   Neither the people next door (plural) nor Ann is honest.
   Neither Ann nor the people next door are honest.

   After either...or and neither...nor, the last element agrees
   with the verb. Nevertheless, in more informal speech or
   writing, we can find sentences such as Neither Eve nor Ann
   are taking swimming lessons, which is possibly gaining
   ground among English speakers.

   Some people would avoid saying Either Peter or I am giving
   Mary a lift to the station, and would use Either Peter or I
   are giving Mary a lift to the station. Another alternative
   to this sentence would be Either Peter or I will be giving
   Mary a lift to the station.

   Either...or and neither...nor can also be used in other
     I drink neither coffee nor tea.
     They neither speak English nor study French.
     Either you help me or Iíll tell your parents what you
     have done.
     I want either a belt or some money.
     You can either study or work.

   Instead of neither...nor, not (...either)...or is usually
     I donít drink (either) coffee or tea.
     I donít speak (either) Italian or French.
   Either can be ommitted here.

   Either and neither must be followed by of if we have a
   pronoun or a determiner + a plural form7:
     Neither of them is interested in your project.
     Either of you has broken my coffee cups.
     Neither of my sisters is abroad.
     Either of these rooms will serve me as a study.

   Nonetheless, we can leave out the prepositon of, and
   use a singular noun:
     Neither sister is abroad.
     Either room will serve me as a study.

   It is also possible to drop the preposition of +
   the pronoun (or the determiner + the plural noun) when
   there is no need to mention the people or things we are
   referring to:
     Neither is abroad.
     Either will serve me as a study.

   And last, but not least, either and neither are used for
   two people or things, or two groups of people or of things.
   See unit 15, section 1.

   Fill in the blanks with either, neither, of, nor, or, and
   the appropriate form of the verbs in brakets:

a  __________ you postpone the meeting __________ I (make)
   sure you are not elected chairman of the committee.
b  __________ you attend school __________ you (be expelled).
c  Neither __________ them (be) intelligent.
d  Neither Alfred __________ Jennifer (tolerate) her.
e  __________ Paul nor his workmates (be) right.
f  Either someone deceived her __________ she (make) up
   the story.
g  I canít speak __________ Italian __________ Portuguese.
h  They donít wear shoes __________ skirts
i  __________ child (be) studying hard. They will fail.
j  John was __________ at home __________ at the library.
   I looked for him in these two places, but he wasnít there.

8  Examples: (neither...nor)
   Neither Molly nor John is getting better.
   Neither in general nor in detail do I agree with you.
   Julia neither works nor studies.
   Tom neither eats meat, nor does he drink alcohol.
   They never take any chances, (and/but) nor do they trust
   anybody, I must say.

   In the first example, neither Molly nor John is the subject
   of the sentence. In the second, neither in general nor in
   detail is not the subject. Hence we need an interrogative
   order, called inversion8. In the third, we do not mention
   the subject after nor; but, in the fourth, we repeat the
   subject and, consequently, inversion is required. The same
   goes for the fifth instance. Compare the second, fourth
   and fifth sentences above with the following ones:
     I agree with you neither in general nor in detail.
     Tom neither eats meat nor drinks alcohol. (This
     alternative is much preferred to the one with inversion.)
     They neither take any chances nor trust anybody, I must
     They never take any chances, but/and they do not trust
     anybody either, I must say.

   Write the verbs in brackets in the appropriate form. At
   times, inversion is required.

a  She neither makes up her face, nor she (dress) well.
b  She neither makes up her face nor (dress) well.
c  Cigarette factories are unwilling to recognise that
   tobacco produces addiction. Nor they (wish) to admit
   that many people die from it.
d  I shall not allow a single spelling mistake in
   your exam papers, nor Miss Wright (will).
e  I know that neither Martha nor you (be) ill yesterday.
   So why didnít you attend school?
f  Neither now nor in a hundred years they (find) out the truth.
g  I donít think she deserves such treatment, nor he (do).
h  Neither Madrid nor Santander (be) bombed during the Second
   World War.
i  The mountains bends (be) neither sharp nor dangerous to drive.
j  He did not clear up that rubble, nor he (buy) a sack
   of cement.

9  Revision exercise: (Rewrite the following sentences
   without changing their meaning.)

     If you donít tell me the truth, I wonít forgive you.
     Either you tell me the truth or I wonít forgive you.

a  Her argument does not hold water. Yours doesnít either.
b  She is permissive. Her husband is also permissive.
c  Marilyn didnít stumble over a piece of wood. John didnít
   stumble over a piece of wood.
d  óHer flowers withered.
   óHis flowers withered too.
e  óI wonít tow his car to the local garage.
   óI wonít either.
f  Your handwriting is illegible. Hers too.
g  We shall have to close the shop down. They will also have
   to close down.
h  Somebody is always picking on me for the worst jobs in this
   factory. It must be either Ann or Molly.
i  I fell for her. My friend too.
j  I know this area like the back of my hand. She does too.
k  She never blushes. She never smiles.
l  The boys didnít object to my smoking in the room.
m  They donít own a walled garden. I donít either.
n  Someone poisoned me. Tom and George are the only people who
   could have done such a thing, but I know it was only one
   of them.
o  Mark didnít miss the bus. His niece didnít either.
p  If you donít give me a lollipop, Iíll tell dad.
q  You will end up in a remand home unless you spill the beans.
r  He is very immature for his age. You are too.
s  Eric and Luke arenít searching for adventure.
t  She wonít take bribes. He wonít either.
u  The two men will suit me perfectly, but I need only one
   of them.
v  I donít care a damn. You donít either.
w  óI was fined two hundred pounds for dangerous driving.
   óWe were also fined two hundred pounds for dangerous driving.
x  óI donít dread crocodiles.
   óI donít either.
y  If you donít get rid of that horrendous toy, youíll be
z  His foster-brother lives for his wedding day. His future
   wife does too.

1  For other structures with so, see unit 17, sections 5, 6 and 7.
2  The following sentence is synonymous with the one with so:
   I have also got a terrible cold. As well and too are possible
   instead of also, but they are placed at the end of the
   sentence and are less formal: Iíve got a terrible cold
   too/as well; or, I have too/as well. Me too is a very informal
   alternative: ĎIíve got a terrible cold.í ĎMe too.í
3  See unit 29.
4  But can be used instead of and, but it is more emphatic:
   I love peanunts, but so does my wife.
5  Neither is the opposite of so. Other alternatives:
     I wonít/will not (accept bribes) either.
     Me neither. (informal)
6  But is more emphatic than and.
7  Informally, we can use a plural verb after neither and
   either + of + a pronoun (or a determiner + a plural noun):
     Neither of them go(es) to church regularly.
     Neither of the boys is/are from Manchester.
     I donít think either of them is/are capable of doing
     such a thing.
     Either of these two girls is/are suitable for the job.
8  For inversion, see unit 29.
Author: Miquel Molina i Diez

     Pages: 1 and the key

1  Negative and interrogative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
2  Short answers (Page 2 and the key)
3  Question tags (Page 2 and the key)
4  Questions and exclamations (Page 2 and the key)
5  So, neither, nor, either (the key)
6  Be, used to, would, be/get/become used to, dare, have, get, become, grow, go, turn, fall and feel (Page 2 and the key)
7  Verb tenses: forms (Page 2 and the key)
8  Irregular verbs
9  Verb tenses: uses (Page 2, Page 3, Page 4, Page 5 and the key)
10 Personal pronouns, possessives and reflexive pronouns (Page 2 and the key)
11 The genitive case (the key)
12 Singular and plural nouns (Page 2 and the key)
13 Gender (the key)
14 A, an, some, any, no, not, none, each, every and the; compounds of some, any, no and every (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
15 Neither, not...either, none, not...any, both and all (the key)
16 A few, few, a lot, lots, a little, little, many, much, no and plenty (the key)
17 Enough, too, so and such (the key)
18 Comparative and superlative sentences (Page 2 and the key)
19 Adjective order (the key)
20 Relative clauses (Page 2 and the key)
21 Do and make (the key)
22 Modal verbs (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
23 Infinitives, gerunds and present participles (Page 2 and the key)
24 Conditional sentences (Page 2 and the key)
25 Passive sentences (the key)
26 Reported speech (Page 2 and the key)
27 Purpose (the key)
28 Word order (the key)
29 Inversion (the key)
30 Connectors (Page 2 and the key)
31 Prepositions (Page 2, Page 3 and the key)
32 Phrasal verbs (the key)

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